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VCU Archaeology

Research Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory: A Year in Review–2013

by Bernard K. Means

The first months of 2013 found us completing our first Department of Defense Legacy Program funded project entitled Virtual Artifact Curation: Three-Dimensional Digital Data Collection for Artifact Analysis and Interpretation. A technical report of the same name was completed by myself, Courtney Bowles, Ashley McCuistion, and Clinton King.  A more readily available and peer reviewed version was also written by myself, Courtney Bowles and Ashley McCuistion: “Virtual Artifact Curation of the Historic Past and the NextEngine Desktop 3D Scanner.” Technical Briefs in Historical Archaeology 7:1-12. This peer reviewed article available online at: http://www.sha.org/documents/VirtualArtifacts.pdf. In the closing months of 2013, we began our second Department of Defense Legacy Program funded project entitled Virtual Mobility Archaeology Project with Further Applications of Three Dimensional Digital Scanning of Archaeological Objects.  For this latter project, we are working with Amy Wood of the Fort Lee Regional Archaeological Curation Facility to make our virtual models more readily available to researchers, students, and the general public. We also received funding from the Council of Virginia Archaeologists to begin creating a digital passenger pigeon type collection and from Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU)’s Faculty Council to scan Monongahela tradition artifacts in The State Museum of Pennsylvania.

A passenger pigeon coracoid scanned by Mariana Zechini from the Virginia Museum of Natural History.

A passenger pigeon coracoid scanned by Mariana Zechini from the Virginia Museum of Natural History.

During the year, as documented in this blog, we’ve done research, demonstrations, or public outreach at the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Clover Hill High School, James Madison’s Montpelier, the Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, George Washington’s Ferry Farm, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Virginia Museum of Natural History, Fairfax County Park Authority Preservation Branch, Carter Robinson Mound site, Archaeology in the Community Day of Archaeology in Washington, D.C., The State Museum of Pennsylvania, Jamestown Rediscovery, Alexandria Archaeology Museum, and the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting–some more than once.

None of the work in the Virtual Curation Laboratory would be possible without VCU undergraduate students who staffed, interned, or volunteered  in the Virtual Curation Laboratory.  Our current staff includes: Ashley McCuistion, Digital Curation Supervisor; Allen Huber, Digital Technology Supervisor; Mariana Zechini, Digital Zooarchaeologist; and Rachael Hulvey and Lauren Volkers, our Research Associates.  Interns for 2013 included, listed alphabetically, Francesca Chesler, Aaron Ellrich, Reggie Hay, Rachael Hulvey, Ruth Martin, Olivia McCarty, Amanda Ndemo, Natalie Petrizza, Erin Shaw, Danielle Smith, Leslie Straub, Lauren Volkers, and Mariana Zechini.  Crystal Castleberry, Stephanie King, and Ashley McCuistion also completed independent studies in the Virtual Curation Laboratory.

The formal publications, presentations and demonstrations conducted through the Virtual Curation Laboratory are listed below in chronological order, from the most recent to the oldest and extending to the founding of the Virtual Curation Laboratory (since I did not do year end reviews in 2012 or 2011). Many of the presentations and demonstrations are by undergraduate students at VCU in Richmond, Virginia.We’ve had support from the VCU School of World Studies and the VCU Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program for many of the presentations, and the VCU Libraries were instrumental to our exhibit in the Library. It’s a long list, so I thought I’d distract you with this full-color animation of a human skull used for anatomical teaching purposes at the Medical College of Virginia. The skull was scanned by Allen Huber, who also produced this animation.

Animated human cranium scanned by Allen Huber.

Animated human cranium scanned by Allen Huber.

Publications in 2013

Means, Bernard K., Courtney Bowles, Ashley McCuistion, and Clinton King
2013 Virtual Artifact Curation: Three-Dimensional Digital Data Collection for Artifact Analysis and Interpretation. Prepared for the Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program, Legacy Project #11-334. Prepared by the Virtual Curation Laboratory, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Means, Bernard K., Ashley McCuistion, and Courtney Bowles
2013 Virtual Artifact Curation of the Historic Past and the NextEngine Desktop 3D Scanner. Technical Briefs in Historical Archaeology 7:1-12. Peer reviewed article available online at: http://www.sha.org/documents/VirtualArtifacts.pdf

McCuistion, Ashley, Courtney Bowles, Bernard K. Means, and Clinton King
2013 Protocols for Three-Dimensional Digital Data Collection from Artifacts Using the NextEngine Desktop 3D Scanner. Prepared for the Department of Defense, Legacy Resource Management Program, Legacy Project #11-334. Prepared by the Virtual Curation Laboratory, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Presentations or Demonstrations in 2013

Copying the Past: Variation in Size and Form in Digital Models and Artifact Replicas. Paper presented by Lauren Volkers  in the session 3D Virtual Archaeology, chaired by Bernard K. Means at the 19th Annual Student Research Conference, Sponsored by the VCU School of World Studies and the VCU Global Education Office, Richmond, Virginia, November 15, 2013.

Remains to be Seen: Digital Curation of Human Bones. Paper presented by Allen Huber in the session 3D Virtual Archaeology, chaired by Bernard K. Means at the 19th Annual Student Research Conference, Sponsored by the VCU School of World Studies and the VCU Global Education Office, Richmond, Virginia, November 15, 2013.

Beneath the Big House: Interpreting Archaeology across James Madison’s Montpelier. Paper presented by Rachael Hulvey in the session 3D Virtual Archaeology, chaired by Bernard K. Means at the 19th Annual Student Research Conference, Sponsored by the VCU School of World Studies and the VCU Global Education Office, Richmond, Virginia, November 15, 2013.

Digitizing of Montpelier’s Past: 3D Scanning in Archaeological Research. Paper presented by Aaron Ellrich in the session 3D Virtual Archaeology, chaired by Bernard K. Means at the 19th Annual Student Research Conference, Sponsored by the VCU School of World Studies and the VCU Global Education Office, Richmond, Virginia, November 15, 2013.

Rock of Ages: Analyzing Lithics in the Virtual Curation Laboratory. Paper presented by Ashley McCuistion in the session 3D Virtual Archaeology, chaired by Bernard K. Means at the 19th Annual Student Research Conference, Sponsored by the VCU School of World Studies and the VCU Global Education Office, Richmond, Virginia, November 15, 2013.

Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU. Paper presented by Bernard K. Means in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013.

Zooarchaeology in the 21st Century. Paper presented by Mariana Zechini in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013.

Broken Bones: Digital Curation and Mending of Human Remains. Paper presented by Allen Huber in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013.

The Missmeasure of Artifacts? Examining Digital Models of Artifact Replicas to Observe Variation in Size and Form. Paper presented by Lauren Volkers in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013.

One Million Years of Technology: Lithic Analysis and 3D Scanning in the 21st Century.  Paper presented by Ashley McCuistion in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013.

Lithics and Lasers: 3D Scanning Prehistoric Projectile Points from James Madison’s Montpelier. Paper presented by Aaron Ellrich in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013. Note: winner of the best undergraduate student paper award.

Manipulating Montpelier: Creating a Virtual Exhibit of Life at Montpelier for the Madisons and Their Enslaved People. Paper presented by Rachael Hulvey in the session Two Years Before the Past: Activities in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ VCU, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 25, 2013.

New Deal Archaeology and Virtual Curation. Presented by Bernard K. Means in the student public event “Blast with the Past: A Celebration of Archaeology” organized by Ashely McCuistion and Lauren Volkers, Commons Plaza, Virginia Commonwealth University, October 23, 2013, Richmond, Virginia.

Digital Archaeology in the Virtual Curation Laboratory 3D Scanning and Research at VCU. Exhibit by Virtual Curation Laboratory staff and interns at the James Branch Cabell Library, Virginia Commonwealth University, October 22 to December 2, 2013, Richmond, Virginia.

Fire Up the Lasers! Creating 3D Digital Avatars of Archaeological Objects. Presentation and demonstration by Bernard K. Means at the Alexandria Archaeology Museum as part of International Archaeology Day, October 19, 2013, Alexandria, Virginia.

Demonstrating Virtual Archaeology through Digital Models and Printed Replicas. Presentation and demonstration by Bernard K. Means with Virginia Commonwealth University students Allen Huber (human skeletal biology), Rachael Hulvey (historical archaeology at Montpelier), Ashley McCuistion (chipped stone tools), Lauren Volkers (measuring the past), and Mariana Zechini (zooarchaeology) to two sections of Historical Research and Technology, taught by James Triesler. Clover Hill High School, October 7, 2013, Midlothioan, Virginia.

C.S.I.: Fredericksburg. Presentation by Bernard K. Means as part of Digital Pragmata’s Lightning Talks, James Branch Cabell Library, Virginia Commonwealth University, September 24, 2013, Richmond, Virginia.

Past/Future: How VCU’s Virtual Curation Laboratory Uses 3D Technology to Preserve Humanity’s Legacy. Presentation by Bernard K. Means as part of the Berglund Seminar Series, Honors College, Virginia Commonwealth University, September 18, 2013, Richmond, Virginia.

The Virtual Curation Laboratory and Archaeology in the Community’s Day of Archaeology. Demonstration of 3D technology by Bernard K. Means, Ashley McCuistion and Mariana Zechini, July 28, 2013, Turkey Thicket Park, Washington, D.C.

The Future Meets the Past: Using Modern Technologies to Uncover the Prehistoric Monongahela Culture. Presentation and demonstration by Bernard K. Means at the Somerset Historical Center, June 25, 2013, Somerset, Pennsylvania.

It’s a Small Finds World After All: Research in the Virtual Curation Laboratory. Senior author Bernard K. Means with Courtney Bowles, Crystal Castleberry, Allen Huber, Rachael Hulvey, Stephanie King, Ashley McCuistion, Natalie Petrizza, Jamie Pham, and Mariana Zechini. Poster presented at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

Yes, Really, Actually, it is Virtual!!!!!  Poster presented by Courtney Bowles at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

 I’m Heating Up My Extruder!3D Printing of Archaeological Materials at VCU. Poster presented by Allen Huber at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

Incomplete Reflections: Addressing Potential Bias in Digital Curation. Poster presented by Rachael Hulvey at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

Initial Analysis and Considerations for Burial Processing Indicators on Middle Atlantic American Indian Remains. Poster presented by Stephanie King at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

From Paper Museums to Laser Movies: Archaeological Visualization, 3D Technology and Education. Poster presented by Ashley McCuistion at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

Environmental Archaeology and 3D Scanning. Poster presented by Natalie Petrizza at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

Virtual Archaeology and African Americans: Research, Education, and Outreach. Poster presented by Jamie Pham and Crystal Castleberry at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

Baculum to the Future. Poster presented by Mariana Zechini at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 2013.

From the Actual to the Virtual to the Tangible: Virtual Curation and Small Finds. Senior author Bernard K. Means with Courtney Bowles, Crystal Castleberry, Allen Huber, Rachael Hulvey, Stephanie King, Ashley McCuistion, Natalie Petrizza, Jamie Pham, and Mariana Zechini. Poster and demonstration in the workshop “A Celebration of Small Finds,” chaired by Laura J. Galke and Mara Katkins, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013.

Moving between Reality as Virtual and Reality as Actual. Presentation and demonstration by Courtney Bowles in the workshop “A Celebration of Small Finds,” chaired by Laura J. Galke and Mara Katkins, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013.

Rocky Raccoon: The Application of 3D Technology to Zooarchaeology. Presentation and demonstration by Mariana Zechini in the workshop “A Celebration of Small Finds,” chaired by Laura J. Galke and Mara Katkins, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013.

Exploring New Paths: Research, Education, and Outreach Through 3D Archaeology. Presentation and demonstration by Jamie Pham and Crystal Castleberry in the workshop “A Celebration of Small Finds,” chaired by Laura J. Galke and Mara Katkins, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013.

Handing the Past to the Present: The Impact of 3D Printing on Public Archaeology. Presentation by Allen Huber in the session Archaeological Science: New Endeavors in the Old Fashioned New Archaeology, chaired by Thomas R. Whyte, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013.

New Dimensions: 3D Scanning of Iroquoian Effigy Sherds .Presentation by Rachael Hulvey in the session Archaeological Science: New Endeavors in the Old Fashioned New Archaeology, chaired by Thomas R. Whyte, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013.

Promoting the Past: The Educational Applications of 3D Scanning Technology in Archaeology . Presentation by Ashley McCuistion in the session Archaeological Science: New Endeavors in the Old Fashioned New Archaeology, chaired by Thomas R. Whyte, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 9, 2013. Note: winner of the best undergraduate student paper award.

Exploring New Paths: Virtual Curation and African American Archaeology. Presentation by Crystal Castleberry in the session Approaches to the Archaeology of African Americans, chaired by Becca Peixotto, at the 2013 Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 8, 2013.

3D Archaeology and Virtual Curation.  Presentation and demonstration by Bernard K. Means with Virginia Commonwealth University students Crystal Castleberry (African American archaeology), Ashley McCuistion (Ferry Farm through the Ages), and Mariana Zechini (Animals in Archaeology and Zooarchaeology) to the Honors US History and Historical Research and Technology, taught by Emmett Hickam and James Triesler, respectively. Clover Hill High School, February 15, 2013, Midlothioan, Virginia.

Virtual Archaeology and Smoking Pipes. Demonstration by Bernard K. Means, Ashley McCuistion and Mariana Zechni for the Small Finds Work Group at the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, Richmond, Virginia, January 23, 2013.

From the Tangible to the Intangible: Virtual Curation of America’s Historic Past. Invited paper presented by Bernard K. Means in the session Transforming Narratives and Globalizing Access: Curation, Conservation and Social Engagement, chaired by Emily Williams and Suzanne Findlen Hood, at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Leicester, United Kingdom.  January 10, 2013.

Presentations or Demonstrations in 2012

Out of the Archives and into the Future: The Research Potential of Archaeological Collections Related to the Monongahela Tradition. Presentation by Bernard K. Means to the Department of Anthropology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, November 8, 2012, Indiana, Pennsylvania.

Stones, Bones, Bugs, and Lasers: 3D Laser Scanning at the Virtual Curation Laboratory and Beyond. Presentation by Bernard K. Means at Virginia Commonwealth University in the Anthropology Speakers Series, October 17, 2012, Richmond, Virginia.

From the Actual to the Virtual: Creating 3D Digital Models of Archaeological Objects. Presentation by Bernard K. Means to Honors College students in the Freshman Research Institute at Virginia Commonwealth University, August 17, 2012, Richmond, Virginia.

3D Scanning of Archaeological Remains: A Tool for Preservation and Collaboration. Invited presentation by Bernard K. Means to the Council of West Virginia/West Virginia Archaeological Society Technology in Archaeology workshop, Beckley, West Virginia, June 2, 2012.

Virtual Archaeology and George Washington’s Ferry Farm.  Demonstration by Bernard K. Means at George Washington’s Ferry Farm, April 28, 2012, Fredericksburg, Virginia.

3D Technology and Archaeological Theory. Poster presented by Courtney Bowles at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

It’s the Small Things. Poster presented by Kristen Currey at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

Ferry Farm in Three Dimensions: How 3D scanning enhances our understanding of historic artifacts. Poster presented by Allen Huber at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

Facing the Past: The Benefits of 3D Scanning for Analyzing Iroquoian Effigy Face Rim Sherds.  Poster presented by Rachael Hulvey at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

3D @ VCU: Digital Scanning of Artifacts by the Virtual Curation Unit for Recording Archaeological Materials Systematically.  Presentation by Bernard K. Means, Clinton King, Courtney Bowles, Victoria Valentine, Kristen Currey, Daniel Sullivan, Allen Huber, Rachael Hulvey, and Beth Reid. Poster presented at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

Interpretative Considerations and the Virtual Curation Unit. Poster presented by Beth Reid at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

The Virtual Curation Unit @ VCU: for Recording Archaeological Materials Systematically. Poster presented by Victoria Valentine at the 4th Annual Undergraduate Poster Symposium at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 2012.

Virtual Archaeology: The Creation, Dissemination, and Use of Virtualized Artifacts, Sites, Assemblages, and Archives.  Presentation by Bernard K. Means, Clinton King and John Haynes.  In the session Virtual Archaeology: The Creation, Dissemination, And Use of Virtualized Artifacts, Sites, Assemblages, and Archives, organized and chaired by Matthew Betts.  Society for American Archaeology annual meeting, Memphis, Tennessee, April 20, 2012.

Virtual Reality and Archaeology: Creating 3D Digital Avatars of Archaeological Discoveries. Presentation by Bernard K. Means at Virginia Commonwealth University in the Anthropology Speakers Series, April 3, 2012, Richmond, Virginia.

Virtual Archaeology and the Realities of War: 3D Digital Models of Civil War Artifacts.  Presentation by Bernard K. Means in the Friends of Fairfax County Archaeology symposium Civil War Archaeology, March 31, 2012, Falls Church, Virginia.

3D Technology and Archaeological Theory. Paper presented by Courtney Bowles. In the session Virtual Worlds for Archaeology: Collections, Conservation, and Interpretation, organized and chaired by Bernard K. Means.  Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 24, 2012.

3D Virtual Artifact Curation @ VCU: The Virtual Curation Unit for Recording Archaeological Materials Systematically (V.C.U.-R.A.M.S.) Project.  Presentation by Bernard K. Means, Clinton King, Courtney Bowles, Victoria Valentine, and John Haynes. In the session Virtual Worlds for Archaeology: Collections, Conservation, and Interpretation, organized and chaired by Bernard K. Means.  Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 24, 2012.

3D @ VCU: Digital Scanning of Organic Artifacts by the Virtual Curation Unit for Recording Archaeological Materials Systematically. Demonstration by Bernard K. Means, Clinton King, Courtney Bowles, Victoria Valentine, Kristen Currey, Daniel Sullivan, Allen Huber, and Rachael Hulvey.  Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, Virginia Beach, Virginia, March 23, 2012.

Digitizing the Past in Three Dimensions: Virtual Curation and Archaeology.  Presentation by Bernard K. Means to the Westmoreland Archaeological Society, March 15, 2012, Unity Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.

Digitizing the Past in Three Dimensions: Virtual Curation and Archaeology.  Presentation and demonstration by Bernard K. Means to the Veterans Curation Project, February 29, 2012, Alexandria, Virginia.

3D Digital Scanning of Historic Artifacts. Demonstration by Clinton King and Bernard K. Means.  Invited demonstration by the Technology Committee at the Society for Historical Archaeology annual meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, January 6, 2012.

Digitizing the Past in Three Dimensions: Virtual Curation of Historical Artifacts. Senior author with co-authors Clinton King (Virginia Commonwealth University) and John Haynes (Army Corps of Engineers).  Invited presentation in the session Technology and the Modern Archaeologist: Technological Applications for Marine and Terrestrial Archaeology, chaired by Jonathan Libbon and Richard Lundin, at the Society for Historical Archaeology annual meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, January 5, 2012.

Publications in 2011

Means, Bernard K. Clinton M. King, Courtney Bowles, and Victoria Valentine
2011 3D Digital Scanning Archaeological Project at Virginia Commonwealth University. Virginia Archaeologist 28 (2):10-11.

Presentations or Demonstrations in 2011

What Do (Digital) Objects Mean?  Presentation by Bernard K. Means with co-authors Clinton King, Courtney Bowles, Victoria Valentine, (preceeding all from Virginia Commonwealth University) and John Haynes (Marine Corps Base Quantico). Paper presented in the session Moving Through the Written and the Visual, chaired by Bernard K. Means, at the Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory (CHAT) conference at Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts, November 12, 2011.

VA Squared: Virtual Archives and Virginia Archaeology. Presentation by Bernard K. Means with co-authors Clinton King, Courtney Bowles, Victoria Valentine, Cameron Boothe (preceding all from Virginia Commonwealth University) and John Haynes (Marine Corps Base Quantico).  Paper presented at the Archeological Society of Virginia annual meeting, Staunton, Virginia. October 14, 2011.

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